MAP

Sunday, 13 September 2015

NEW THEORY—IF WE WANT TO DETECT DARK MATTER WE MIGHT NEED A DIFFERENT APPROACH - August 20, 2015

“They believe that dark matter particles annihilate into so-called dark radiation when they collide”

2nd OPINION

Normally Dark matter not collide, they readjust itself because our atmosphere is stable now.

REFERENCE: 

Since 2013 I have been writing




If these particles collide with white atom then some energy is released but not at our atmospheric condition [not even below the earth where various experiments have been conducted]. 


"There is no way of predicting what we can do with dark matter, if we detect it. But it might revolutionize our world.”

“He and his colleagues now suggest looking for the signs of dark matter activity rather than the dark matter particles themselves” 

2nd OPINION:

We study terrestrial science [on the basis of 4% stuffs], the universal science is different [on the basis of 4% + 96% stuffs].
My hypothesis [based on UNIVERSAL SCIENCE] can explain & re-explain everything.

REFERENCE: 

Since 2013 I have been writing





“The hope is that one of these detectors will one day catch a dark matter particle passing through Earth.”

2nd OPINION:

“THIS IS THE BIG MISTAKE WE HAVE BEEN DOING WITH DARK MATTER DETECTION EXPERIMENTS”

Since our system is now more stable the chances of detecting dark atom in under ground experiment is very less.

Large amount of Dark matter may be detected when

1.some white atoms escape from nearby area of the detector due to entry of  Dark energy in our earth’s core

2.some asteroid or other heavenly body hits the earth surface.

REFERENCE: 

DARK MATTER & ITS PROPERTY IS BRIEFED IN MY ORAL PRESENTATION ON 24TH, JULY’2015 IN VIETNAM, INTERNATIONAL SCIENCE CONFERENCE, IT WILL HELP US TO DETECT THE DARK MATTER

[“Planetary System – a synergistic view”] at Vietnam [19th-25th , July’15]. The title of my oral presentation is “Regeneration of Star & formation of a Solar system – a Potter man's concept”




Physicists suggest a new way to look for dark matter: They believe that dark matter particles annihilate into so-called dark radiation when they collide. If true, then we should be able to detect the signals from this radiation.
The majority of the mass in the universe remains unknown. Despite knowing very little about dark matter, its overall abundance is precisely measured. In other words: Physicists know it is out there, but they have not yet detected it.
It is definitely worth looking for, argues Ian Shoemaker, former postdoctoral researcher at Centre for Cosmology and Particle Physics Phenomenology (CP3), Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, now at Penn State, USA.
"There is no way of predicting what we can do with dark matter, if we detect it. But it might revolutionize our world. When scientists discovered quantum mechanics, it was considered a curiosity. Today, quantum mechanics plays an important role in computers," he says.
Ever since dark matter was first theorized, there have been many attempts to look for it, and now Ian Shoemaker and fellow scientists, Associate Professor Mads Toudal Frandsen, CP3, and John F. Cherry, postdoctoral researcher from Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA, suggest a new approach. They present their work in the journal Physical Review Letters.
Look in underground caves
On Earth, several detectors are located in underground cavities, where disturbing noise is minimized. The hope is that one of these detectors will one day catch a dark matter particle passing through Earth.
According to Ian Shoemaker, it is possible that this might happen, but given how little we know about dark matter, we should keep an open mind and explore all paths that could lead to its detection
One reason for this is that dark matter is not very dense in our part of the universe.
"If we add another way of looking for dark matter, then we will increase our chances of detecting dark matter in our underground cavities", says Shoemaker.
He and his colleagues now suggest looking for the signs of dark matter activity rather than the dark matter particles themselves.
The researchers believe that when two dark matter particles meet, they will behave just like ordinary particles; that they will annihilate and create radiation in the process. In this case, the radiation is called dark radiation, and it may be detected by the existing underground detectors.
"Underground detection experiments may be able to detect the signals created by dark radiation", Shoemaker says.
The researchers have found that the Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment is, in fact, already sensitive to this signal and can, with future data, confirm or exclude their hypothesis for dark matter's origin.
Don't forget to look in the Milky Way, too
The attempt to catch signals from dark radiation is not a new idea—it is currently being performed in several regions in space via satellite-based experiments. These places include the center of our galaxy, the Milky Way, and the sun is another possible location.
"It makes sense to look for dark radiation in certain places in space, where we expect it to be very dense—a lot denser than on Earth", explains Shoemaker, adding, "If there is an abundance of dark matter in these areas, then we would expect it to annihilate and create radiation."
None of the satellite-based experiments however have yet detected dark radiation. According to Shoemaker, Frandsen and Cherry, this could be because the experiments look for the wrong signals.
"The traditional satellite-based experiments search for photons, because they expect dark matter to annihilate into photons. But if dark matter annihilates into dark radiation, then these satellite-based experiments are hopeless."
In the early days of the universe, when all matter was still extremely dense, dark matter may have collided and annihilated into radiation all the time. This happened to ordinary matter as well, so it is not unlikely that dark matter behaves the same way, the researchers argue.
How to find dark matter
Physicists have three ways to try and detect dark matter:
Make it: Slam matter together and produce dark matter. This has been tried at high-energy particle colliders, the most famous of which is CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in Geneva, Switzerland. So far, no success.
Break it: This is the "annihilation" process in which two dark matter particles meet and produce some sort of radiation. This can happen whenever dark matter is dense enough so that the probability of two dark matter particles colliding is sufficiently high. So far no success.
Wait for it: Set up detectors and wait for them to catch dark matter particles or signs of them. So far no success.

“REGENERATION OF STAR & FORMATION OF SOLAR SYSTEM - Potter Man’s concept” – a new hypothesis for the formation of our solar system - by SHREEKANT

I HAVE GIVEN NEW HYPOTHESIS FOR THE FORMATION OF OUR SOLAR SYSTEM ON 24th JULY’2015  in International Science conference [“Planetary System – a synergistic view”] at Vietnam [19th-25th , July’15]. The title of my oral presentation is “Regeneration of Star & formation of a Solar system – a Potter man's concept
The abstract is as follow:
From: KANT
Email: shreekant.jsr@gmail.com
Institution's Name: Swaraj Groups
Address: Flat No.-211, Block-B, City Palace, Sher-e-Punjab, Adityapur, Jamshedpur, Jharkhand, India
Talk/Poster: either
Title : “REGENERATION OF STAR & FORMATION OF SOLAR SYSTEM - Potter Man’s concept”
Abstract:
The 96% unknown stuffs are very important. The invisible space is filled with dark atoms. Dark energy moves in a gap between white & dark atoms. Our universe is 4-dimensional, but not of space-time. I applied the concept of fifth force that arises due to the pushing nature of Dark energy in the formation of Solar System (Potter Man’s concept). The effect of shielding in moons and asteroid belt formation is studied. Pulsation of Sun during and after supernova blast and its effect on the composition and rotation of ejecta also considered. During supernova blast
heavy elements come out first. The distribution and presence of elements and compounds are not random, it depends on some criteria. Formations of water, methane, carbon di-oxide are also controlled by certain condition but it does not assure the presence of life or habitable condition. The chances of life are negligible around the primary stars. In our system first planet formed was Mercury, then Venus, Earth/Moon, Mars, Asteroid belt.
Earth’s moon formed just after the Earth, better to say simultaneously. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus & Neptune are not a planet; they are junior Sun (Jr. SUN). They came in the system during speedy contraction of Sun, just after supernova blast. Pluto may be an exoplanet that came in the same way. Kuiper belt is the ‘highly energetic belt’ capable of making new bodies when raw materials are present. The alignment of Sun, Planets and Moons may cause entry of foreign body in our system.
--
This e-mail was sent from the "Abstract" form on Planetary Systems: A Synergistic View

XMASS CONTINUES DARK MATTER DEBATE, XMASS is the latest of multiple experiments to contradict a previous dark matter discovery claim, but the conversation isn't over yet. Kathryn Jepsen, September 10, 2015

Since 1998, scientists on the DAMA-LIBRA experiment at Gran Sasso National Laboratory in Italy have claimed the discovery of an increasingly statistically significant sign of dark matter.
This week, the XMASS experiment in Japan joined the LUX, Xenon100 and CDMS experiments in reporting results that seem to contradict that claim.
Scientists look for dark matter in many ways. Both this result from the XMASS experiment and the results from DAMA-LIBRA look for something called annual modulation, a sign that the Earth is constantly moving through a halo of dark matter particles.
As the sun rotates around the center of the Milky Way, the Earth moves around the sun, completing one revolution per year. During the first half of the year, the Earth moves in the same direction as the sun; during the second half, the Earth completes its circle, moving in the opposite direction.
When the sun and Earth are moving in the same direction, the Earth should move through slightly more dark matter than when the sun and Earth are moving in opposite directions. So scientists should see a few more dark matter particles hit their detectors during that part of the year.
Experiments other than DAMA-LIBRA have seen hints of an annual modulation, but only the CoGeNT experiment has ever provided support for DAMA-LIBRA’s claim that this modulation comes from dark matter.
The effect could be caused by other annual changes. Pressure and temperature could affect an experiment. Atmospheric changes with the seasons could affect the number of cosmic rays that reach the experiment. Background radiation from radon gas has been known to change seasonally for underground experiments because of its interaction with the water table in the rock, says Fermilab scientist Dan Bauer of the CDMS experiment.
“Nobody’s been able to put their finger on what’s causing the DAMA modulation,” he says. “We can’t find the smoking gun.”
The XMASS experiment in Kamioka, Japan, looks for signs that dark matter particles have bounced off the nuclei in their 832-kilogram container of liquid Xenon. The experiment has sensitivity to two types of possible dark matter interactions, says scientist Yoichiro Suzuki, principal investigator for XMASS at the Tokyo-based Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, in an email.
After taking data for about 16 months, the XMASS experiment disagreed with the DAMA-LIBRA claim, if one assumes dark matter particles scatter like billiard balls when they collide with nuclei. XMASS did find a low level of annual modulation, though, and that could be a hint of dark matter interacting with normal matter in a different way.
However, XMASS scientists deduced from their signal some characteristics that the dark matter particles causing the modulation would need to have: their masses and their rates of interaction with normal matter. And experiments that search for dark matter directly have already ruled out those masses and interaction rates.
But scientists still don’t know for sure what dark matter particles are like. Until they do, or until they identify the source of the annual modulation signals, they might have a hard time dissuading scientists on DAMA-LIBRA.

The XMASS experiment continues to take data, Suzuki says. XMASS scientists hope eventually to build a 5-ton version of the experiment. 

Tuesday, 1 September 2015

MAGNETIC WORMHOLE CREATED IN LAB Device acts like a wormhole, as if the magnetic field was transferred through an “extra special dimension” By Tia Ghose and LiveScience | August 21, 2015

“Theoretically these Einstein-Rosen bridges, or wormholes, could allow something to tunnel instantly between great distances (though the tunnels in this theory are extremely tiny, so ordinarily wouldn't fit a space traveler)”

2nd OPINION: 
Tunnels are not tiny but speed of an object depends on the narrowness of the tunnel, size of the object [better to say thickness of the Dark Energy & Dark Atom around the object], surrounding condition near the wormhole like size of the galaxy, distance of wormhole from the galactic core, presence of supernova etc.

Reference:
POINT No. 11 in the below link

http://swarajgroups.blogspot.in/2015/01/theory-of-everything-1st-step-on-basis.html


“The new wormhole isn't a space-time wormhole per se, ….” 

2nd OPINION: WHAT IF UNIVERSAL SCIENCE [based on 4% + 96%] EXPLAIN EVERYTHING WITHOUT SPACE-TIME ???

Reference:
1.It is the part of my oral presentation on “Regeneration of Star & formation of a Solar system – a Potter man's concept” in International Science conference [“Planetary System – a synergistic view”] at Vietnam [19th-25th , July’15]

2.http://swarajgroups.blogspot.in/2015/03/why-theory-of-everything-on-basis-of.html


“This type of wormhole would hide electromagnetic waves from view from the outside.” 

2nd OPINION: 
Wormhole & e.m wave both are the result of Dark Energy. Visibility depends on the layer of Dark Energy.  



Ripped from the pages of a sci-fi novel, physicists have crafted a wormhole that tunnels a magnetic field through space.
"This device can transmit the magnetic field from one point in space to another point, through a path that is magnetically invisible," said study co-author Jordi Prat-Camps, a doctoral candidate in physics at the Autonomous University of Barcelona in Spain. "From a magnetic point of view, this device acts like a wormhole, as if the magnetic field was transferred through an extra special dimension." 
The idea of a wormhole comes from Albert Einstein's theories. In 1935, Einstein and colleague Nathan Rosen realized that the general theory of relativity allowed for the existence of bridges that could link two different points in space-time. Theoretically these Einstein-Rosen bridges, or wormholes, could allow something to tunnel instantly between great distances (though the tunnels in this theory are extremely tiny, so ordinarily wouldn't fit a space traveler). So far, no one has found evidence that space-time wormholes actually exist. [Science Fact or Fiction? The Plausibility of 10 Sci-Fi Concepts]
The new wormhole isn't a space-time wormhole per se, but is instead a realization of a futuristic "invisibility cloak" first proposed in 2007 in the journal Physical Review Letters. This type of wormhole would hide electromagnetic waves from view from the outside. The trouble was, to make the method work for light required materials that are extremely impractical and difficult to work with, Prat said.
Magnetic wormhole
But it turned out the materials to make a magnetic wormhole already exist and are much simpler to come by. In particular, 
superconductors, which can carry high levels of current, or charged particles, expel magnetic field lines from their interiors, essentially bending or distorting these lines. This essentially allows the magnetic field to do something different from its surrounding 3D environment, which is the first step in concealing the disturbance in a magnetic field.
So the team designed a three-layer object, consisting of two concentric spheres with an interior spiral-cylinder. The interior layer essentially transmitted a magnetic field from one end to the other, while the other two layers acted to conceal the field's existence.
The inner cylinder was made of a ferromagnetic mu-metal. Ferromagnetic materials exhibit the strongest form of magnetism, while mu-metals are highly permeable and are often used for shielding electronic devices.
A thin shell made up of a high-temperature superconducting material called yttrium barium copper oxide lined the inner cylinder, bending the magnetic field that traveled through the interior.
The final shell was made of another mu-metal, but composed of 150 pieces cut and placed to perfectly cancel out the bending of the magnetic field by the superconducting shell. The whole device was placed in a liquid-nitrogen bath (high-temperature superconductors require the low temperatures of liquid nitrogen to work).
Normally, magnetic field lines radiate out from a certain location and decay over time, but the presence of the magnetic field should be detectable from points all around it. However, the new magnetic wormhole funnels the magnetic field from one side of the cylinder to another so that it is "invisible" while in transit, seeming to pop out of nowhere on the exit side of the tube, the researchers report today (Aug. 20) in the journal Scientific Reports.
"From a magnetic point of view, you have the magnetic field from the magnet disappearing at one end of the wormhole and appearing again at the other end of the wormhole," Prat told Live Science.
Broader applications
There's no way to know if similar magnetic
 wormholes lurk in space, but the technology could have applications on Earth, Prat said. For instance, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines use a giant magnet and require people to be in a tightly enclosed central tube for diagnostic imaging.
But if a device could funnel a magnetic field from one spot to the other, it would be possible to take pictures of the body with the strong magnet placed far away, freeing people from the claustrophobic environment of an MRI machine, Prat said.
To do that, the researchers would need to modify the shape of their magnetic wormhole device. A sphere is the simplest shape to model, but a cylindrical outer shell would be the most useful, Prat said.
"If you want to apply this to medical techniques or medical equipment, for sure you will be interested in directing toward any given direction," Prat said. "A spherical shape is not the most practical geometry."