2ND OPINION
[by “theory of everything - on the basis of Dark Atom & Dark Energy”] ON

__http://www.universetoday.com/118794/do-time-and-space-exist-at-the-smallest-scales/__
“Now, a
new interpretation …. space and time simply
do not exist.”

2ND
OPINION: Please refer my comment [dated 24th,Jan’2015] on “space – time”

“it is imaginary thing for mathematical approach &
application. The basic thing is DE & its derivatives from which the
universe is made. They form an structure called …… from which whole universe is
made up of.”

“Let’s start with something that is not in question.”

2ND OPINION: but DOUBTFUL

“according to the laws of physics, …. It cannot just disappear.”

2ND OPINION:
fully AGREED according
to “theory of everything-on the basis of DA & DE”

Why all of these bizarre paradoxes?... the elusive theory of everything.

2ND OPINION: since april’2013 all my comment in my blog & other
places like international science blogs/periodical/magazine etc are on the
basis of “theory of everything on the basis of DA & DE”

Dated 24th, Jan’15

Dated 20th, June’13

Dated 15th, Feb.’14

Dated 21st , June’13

Dated 15th, June’13

We’ve come a long way in 13.8 billion
years; but despite our impressively extensive understanding of
the Universe, there are still a few strings left untied. For one, there
is the oft-cited disconnect between general relativity, the physics
of the very large, and quantum mechanics, the physics of the very small. Then
there is problematic fate of a particle’s intrinsic information
after it falls into a black hole. Now, a new interpretation of
fundamental physics attempts to solve both of these conundrums by making a
daring claim: at certain scales, space and time simply do not exist.

Let’s start with something that is not
in question. Thanks to Einstein’s theory of special relativity, we can all
agree that the speed of light is constant for all observers. We can
also agree that, if you’re not a photon, approaching light speed comes with
some pretty funky rules – namely, anyone watching you will see your length
compress and your watch slow down.

But the slowing of time also occurs
near gravitationally potent objects, which are described by general
relativity. So if you happen to be sight-seeing in the center of the Milky Way
and you make the regrettable decision to get too close to our supermassive black
hole’s event horizon (more sinisterly known as its point-of-no-return),
anyone observing you will also see your watch slow down. In fact, he or
she will witness your motion toward the event horizon slow dramatically over
an infiniteamount of time; that is, from your
now-traumatized friend’s perspective, you never actually
cross the event horizon. You, however, will feel no difference in the
progression of time as you fall past this invisible barrier, soon to be spaghettified by
the black hole’s immense gravity.

So, who is “correct”? Relativity
dictates that each observer’s point of view is equally valid; but in this
situation, you can’t both be right. Do you face your demise in
the heart of a black hole, or don’t you? (Note: This isn’t strictly a
paradox, but intuitively, it feels a little sticky.)

And there is an additional, bigger
problem. A black hole’s event horizon is thought to give rise
to Hawking radiation, a kind of escaping energy that will eventually
lead to both the evaporation of the black hole and the destruction of all
of the matter and energy that was once held inside of it. This
concept has black hole physicists scratching their heads. Because
according to the laws of physics, all of the intrinsic information
about a particle or system (namely, the quantum wavefunction)
must be conserved. It cannot just disappear.

Why all of these bizarre paradoxes?
Because black holes exist in the nebulous space where a singularity meets
general relativity – fertile, yet untapped ground for the elusive theory of
everything.

Enter two interesting, yet
controversial concepts: doubly special
relativity and gravity’s rainbow.

Just as the speed of light is a
universally agreed-upon constant in special relativity, so is the Planck energy
in doubly special relativity (DSR). In DSR, this value (1.22 x 1019 GeV) is the maximum energy (and thus,
the maximum mass) that a particle can have in our Universe.

Two important consequences of
DSR’s maximum energy value are minimum units of time and space. That
is, regardless of whether you are moving or stationary, in empty space or near
a black hole, you will agree that classical space breaks down at distances
shorter than the Planck length (1.6 x 10-35 m)
and classical time breaks down at moments briefer than the Planck time
(5.4 x 10-44 sec).

In other words, spacetime is
discrete. It exists in indivisible (albeit vanishingly small) units. Quantum
below, classical above. Add general relativity into the picture, and you get
the theory of gravity’s rainbow.

Physicists Ahmed Farag
Ali, Mir Faizal,
and Barun Majumder
believe that these theories can be used to explain away
the aforementioned black hole conundrums –
both your controversial spaghettification and
the information paradox. How? According to DSR and gravity’s
rainbow, in regions smaller than 1.6 x 10-35 m and at times shorter
than 5.4 x 10-44 sec…
the Universe as we know it simply does not exist.

“In gravity’s rainbow, space does not
exist below a certain minimum length, and time does not exist below a certain
minimum time interval,” explained Ali, who, along with Faizal and
Majumder,
authored a paper on this topic that was published last month. “So, all objects
existing in space and occurring at a time do not exist below that length and
time interval [which are associated with the Planck scale].”

Luckily for us, every particle we know
of, and thus every particle we are made of, is much larger than the Planck
length and endures for much longer than the Planck time. So – phew! – you
and I and everything we see and know can go on existing. (Just don’t probe too
deeply.)

The event horizon of a black hole,
however, is a different story. After all, the event horizon isn’t
made of particles. It is pure spacetime. And according to Ali and his
colleagues, if you could observe it on extremely short time or distance
scales, it would cease to have meaning. It wouldn’t be a point-of-no-return at
all. In their view, the paradox only arises when you treat spacetime as
continuous – without minimum units of length and time.

“As the information paradox depends on
the existence of the event horizon, and an event horizon like all objects does
not exist below a certain length and time interval, then there is no absolute
information paradox in gravity’s rainbow. The absence of an effective horizon
means that there is nothing absolutely stopping information from going out of
the black hole,” concluded Ali.

No absolute event horizon, no
information paradox.

And what of your spaghettification
within the black hole? Again, it depends on the scale at which you choose to
analyze your situation. In gravity’s rainbow, spacetime is discrete; therefore, the
mathematics reveal that both you (the doomed in-faller) and your observer will
witness your demise within a finite length of time. But in the current
formulation of general relativity, where spacetime is described as continuous, the
paradox arises. The in-faller, well, falls in; meanwhile, the observer never
sees the in-faller pass the event horizon.

“The most important lesson from this
paper is that space and time exist only beyond a certain scale,” said Ali.
“There is no space and time below that scale. Hence, it is meaningless to
define particles, matter, or any object, including black holes, that exist in
space and time below that scale. Thus, as long as we keep ourselves
confined to the scales at which both space and time exist, we get sensible
physical answers. However, when we try to ask questions at length and time
intervals that are below the scales at which space and time exist, we end up
getting paradoxes and problems.”

To recap: if spacetime
continues on arbitrarily small scales, the paradoxes remain. If,
however, gravity’s rainbow is correct and the Planck length and the Planck time
are the smallest unit of space and time that fundamentally exist, we’re in the
clear… at least, mathematically speaking. Unfortunately, the Planck scales are
far too tiny for our measly modern particle colliders to probe. So, at least
for now, this work provides yet another purely theoretical result.

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